An-Nahj Al-Asma Fii Sharh Asma’u-Allahul-Husna, by Shaikh Muhammad Al-Humoud Al-Najdi.
The Name of Allah, Ad-Dayyaan, is mentioned in the following narration:
Jabir bin Abdullah (Rahimahullaah) narrated: I was informed about a man who knows a Hadith (narration) that he heard from Allah’s Messenger (salla Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam). So I bought a camel and tied the saddle upon it and traveled to him for one month until I reached him in Sham; he was Abdullah bin Anees. I told the guard: “Tell him Jabir is at the door.” The guard said: “Ibn ’Abdullah (the son of ’Abdullah)?” I said: “Yes.”
He came out in haste, dragging his garment and embraced me and I embraced him and told him: “I heard that you know a narration that you have heard from Allah’s Messenger (salla Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) in al-Qisas (the legal retribution or the law of equality and punishment) and I was afraid for you or me to die before I could hear it*.” The man said: “I heard the Messenger of Allah (salla Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) saying, ‘The people will be gathered on the Day of Resurrection naked, uncircumcised and Buhman.’” I said: “What is Buhman?” He replied: “Nothing is with them. Then He (Allah) will call them with a sound that all those who are far can hear, as well as those who are near, ‘I am the King, I am the Dayyaan, there is no one from the people of Hell that will enter the Hell-Fire and he has a right with one of the people of Paradise until I set off his right. And there is no one from among the people of Paradise that will enter Paradise and he owes a right to one of the people of Hell, until I set off his right, even if it was a slap (on the face).’”
We said: “How would that be, while we come unto Allah naked, uncircumcised and having nothing with us? ” He (salla Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: “By the good and evil deeds.”
In the narration reported by al-Baihaqi, he added: “Allah’s Messenger (salla Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) then recited:
اليَوْمَ تُجْزى كُلُّ نَفْسٍ بِما كَسبَت لا ظُلْمَ اليَوم
“This Day shall every person be recompensed for what he earned. No injustice (shall be done to anybody).” (Ghafir 40:17)
This narration is Sahih and is reported by Ibn Abi Aasim in as-Sunnah, Ahmed, al-Bukhari, al-Hakim and al-Baihaqi.
Also this Name was mentioned in another narration recorded by Abu ad-Dardaa’: “Righteousness is never wasted away, and sin is never forgotten. The Dayyaan never sleeps, be as you wish, how you deal with others is how you will be dealt with.” [Reported by Ahmed, it is Hadith Mawquf]
The Meaning of the Name:
- Al-Khattabi said: “Ad-Dayyaan is the One Who recompenses and also means the Judge.”
- Al-Haleemi said: “Ad-Dayyaan is the One Who takes account and recompenses. He Who recompenses the good with good and evil with evil, and never He will allow to be lost the work of anyone, be he male or female.”
- Ibn al-Atheer said: “Ad-Dayyaan is the Irresistible Who subdues the people to His obedience.”
The Impact of Believing in this Name:
1- Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) is Ad-Dayyaan, the One Who takes account and recompenses His slaves. He is the Judge among them on the Day of Resurrection as He (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) said in (Surat al-Fatihah 1:4):
مالِكِ يَوْم الدِّين
“Sovereign of the Day of Recompense.”
He (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) also said in Surat Ghafir (40:17):
اليَوْمَ تُجْزى كُلُّ نَفْسٍ بِما كَسبَت لا ظُلْمَ اليَوم إِنَّ اللهَ سَريعُ الحساب
“This Day shall every person be recompensed for what he earned. No injustice (shall be done to anybody). Truly, Allah is Swift in reckoning.”
Whoever finds good, then let him thank Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala), and whoever finds other than that then let him not blame anyone except himself.
Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) said in Surat Aal-Imran (3:30):
يوم تجدُ كلُّ نَفْسٍ ماعملت من خيرٍ مُحضراً وما عملت من سوءٍ تَوَدُّ لو أنّ بينها وبينه أمداً بعيداً ويُحذّركم الله نفسه والله رؤوف بالعباد
“On the Day when every person will be confronted with all the good he has done, and all the evil he has done, he will wish that there were a great distance between him and his evil. And Allah warns you against Himself (His punishment) and Allah is Full of Kindness to the (His) slaves.”
Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) also said in Surat al-Anbiya’ (21:47):
ونَضَعُ الموازبن القسط ليوم القيامة فلا تُظلم نفسٌ شَيئاً وإن كان مثقالَ حّبةٍ مِّنْ خَرْدل أَتَيْنَا بها ، وكفى بِنا حاسبين
“And We shall set up balances of justice on the Day of Resurrection, then none will be dealt with unjustly in anything. And if there be the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it. And Sufficient are We as Reckoners.”
In Surat an-Nisa’ (4:40), Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) said:
إِنّ اللَّه لا يَظْلِمُ مِثْقَالَ ذَرّةٍ وإن تكُ حَسَنةً يُضاعِفْها ويُؤْتِ من لّدُنْهُ أجراً عظيماً
“Surely! Allah wrongs not even of the weight of an atom (or a small ant), but if there is any good (done), He doubles it, and gives from Him a great reward.”
Al-Qurtubi (Rahimahullaah) said: “It is obligatory upon every adult to know that Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) is Ad-Dayyaan (the One Who recompenses) on the Day of Judgment. He is the One Who repays and compensates for whatever was earned of good or evil during life on this earth. He (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) will inflict the oppressor with punishment for the sake of the oppressed one and set off the right of the slave from his master.
‘Aisha (Radia Allaahu ‘anha) narrated that a man came and sat in front of Allah’s Messenger (salla Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) and said: “O Allah’s Messenger (salla Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) , I have two slaves who lie to me, betray me and disobey me, upon that (accordingly), I abuse them and beat them, what will be my case with them?” Allah’s Messenger (salla Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: “On the Day of Judgment, their betrayal, lying and disobedience will be counted as well as your punishment for them. If your punishment for them was equal to their sins, then there is nothing for or against you. If your punishment for them was less than their sins, that will be a merit for you and if your punishment for them was more than their wrong, then they will take from you your good deeds according to how much you wronged them.” Thereupon the man went aside and wept. Allah’s Messenger (salla Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:“Don’t you recite Allah’s Book, ‘And We shall set up balances of justice on the Day of Resurrection, then none will be dealt with unjustly in anything. And if there were the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it. And Sufficient are We as Reckoners.’ (Al-Anbiya’ 21:47)”
The man said: “By Allah, there is nothing better for me and them than to part with them. I make you witnesses that they are all free.” [Reported by at-Tirmidhi]
Abu Hurairah (Radia Allaahu ‘anha) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (salla Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: “Do you know who is the one who is bankrupt?” The Companions of the Prophet (salla Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:“A bankrupt person among us is one who has neither Dirhams with him nor any property.”He (salla Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: “The real bankrupt person from my Ummah would be he who would come on the Day of Resurrection with Salat (prayers), Saum (fasting) and Sadaqah (charity), (but he will find himself bankrupt on that Day as he will have exhausted the funds of his virtues), because he had abused somebody; slandered against someone; usurped the wealth of another person, killed someone or beaten yet another person. Then the entire oppressed persons will receive a part of the aggressor’s good deeds. If his good deeds fall short to clear the account, their sins would be entered in his account and he would be thrown in the (Hell) Fire.” [Muslim]
Abu Hurairah (Radia Allaahu ‘anhu) narrated that Allah’s Messenger (salla Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: “On the Day of Resurrection, the rights will be paid to those to whom they are due so much so that a hornless sheep will be driven to horned one (and will get its claim).” [Muslim]
This Hadith makes it abundantly clear that there will be the utmost justice on the Day of Judgment. So much so, that Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) will redress even the grievance of the aggressed animals against the aggressors. Thus, this Hadith is a severe warning for all people. When animals, which are devoid of sense, will not be forgiven, how would mankind, which is gifted with sense, be? The latter will not be pardoned if they are guilty of having been unjust to anyone without adequately compensating them. [Riyad us-Saliheen- Vol 1. commentary by Hafiz Salahuddin Yusuf – Darussalam]
‘Udai bin Hatim (Radia Allaahu ‘anhuma) narrated that Allah’s Messenger (salla Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said:“There is none of you but his Lord will speak to him without an interpreter. He will look to his right and will see only the deeds he had previously done; he will look to his left and will see only the deeds he had previously done, and he will look in front of him and will see nothing but the Fire (of Hell) before his face. So protect yourselves from the Fire (of Hell), even if it should be with half a date (given in charity).”[Agreed upon]
Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) said in Surat ar-Rahman:
ولِمَنْ خافَ مَقامَ رَبِّهِ جَنَّتان
“But for him who fears the standing before his Lord, there will be two Gardens (i.e. in Paradise).” (55:46)
هَل جَزاءُ الإحْسانِ إِلاَّ الإحْسان
“Is there any reward for good other than good?” (55:60)
2- It is incumbent upon the slave to take account of himself before he will be taken to account on the Day of Judgment and he should be prepared for the meeting with the Dayyaan of the Heavens and earths.
3- Bear in mind, “How you deal with others is how you will be dealt with.” Therefore, whoever is dutiful to his parents, his children will be dutiful to him.
Allah’s Messenger (salla Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: “He who alleviates the suffering of a believer from the afflictions of the world, Allah will alleviate his afflictions from the sufferings of the Day of Resurrection. He who helps to remove the hardship of another, will have his difficulties removed by Allah in this world and the Hereafter. One who conceals the faults or shortcomings of another Muslim, will have his faults covered up in this world and in the Hereafter. Allah continues to help a slave so long as he goes on helping his (Muslim) brother.” [Muslim]
On the other hand, whoever takes the properties or wealth of others unjustly, Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) will give the power to someone who will take his wealth and properties. And whoever humiliates others, Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) will send someone who will humiliate him, and so on.
Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) said in Surat al-An’am (6:129):
وكذلِكَ نُوَلِّي بَعْضَ الظَّالِمينَ بَعْضاً بِما كانوا يَكْسِبون
“And thus We do make the wrongdoers allies of others for what they used to earn.”
Allah’s Messenger (salla Allaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) said: “Whoever takes a piece of land of others unjustly, he will sink down the distance of the seven earths on the Day of Resurrection.” [Al-Bukhari]
Therefore, whoever has oppressed another person concerning his reputation or anything else, he should beg him to forgive him before the Day of Resurrection when there will be no money (to compensate for wrong deeds), but if he has good deeds, those good deeds will be taken from him according to the oppression which he has done, and if he has no good deeds, the sins of the oppressed person will be loaded unto him.
* This indicates how much they were eager to learn.
- Al-Malik, Al-Maalik, Al-Maleek
- The Name of Allaah: Al-Ghaniyy (The Rich, Free of all needs)
- Al-Barr (The Most Subtle, Kind, Courteous, and Generous)
- Al-Hayiyy (The Modest)