An-Nahjul-Asmaa Fii Sharh Asma’u Alllah-ul-Husna, by Shaikh Muhammad Al-Humoud Al-Najdi.
Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) is Al-Malik, the King, the Owner of all things Who has full power over them without resistance or hindrance.
The Name, Al-Malik, is mentioned in the Qur’an five times. From these, Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) said in Surat Ta-Ha (20:114):
فَتَعَالَى اللهُ الْمَلِكُ الْحَقُ
“Then High above all be Allah, the True King.”
And in Surat Al-Hashr (59:23):
هُوَ اللهُ الَّذِى لَا إِلهَ إلَّا هُوَ الْمَلِكُ
“He is Allah besides Whom La ilaha illa Huwa none has the right to be worshipped but He, the King.”
Also in Surat An-Nas (114:2):
“The King of mankind.”
The Name, Al-Maalik, is mentioned twice in the Qur’an. In Surat Al-Fatiha (1:4):
مالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ
“The Only Owner (and the Only Ruling Judge) of the Day of Recompense.”
And in Surat Aal-Imran (3:26):
قُلِ اللَّهُمَّ مَالِكَ المُلْكِ
“Say (O Muhammad(Salla Allaahu alaihi wa sallam)), ‘O Allah! Possessor of the kingdom.”
The Name, Al-Maleek, is mentioned once and that is in Surat Al-Qamar (54:54-55):
إِنَّ الْمُتَّقِينَ فِى جَنَّاتٍ وَنَهَرٍ. فِى مَقْعَدِ صِدْقٍ عِندَ مَلِيكٍ مُّقْتَدِرِ
“Verily, the Muttaqun (the pious) will be in the midst of Gardens and Rivers (Paradise). In a seat of Truth (i.e. Paradise), near the Omnipotent King (Allah, the All-Blessed, the Most High, the Owner of Majesty and Honour).”
Ash-Shawkani (Rahimahullaah) said that the scholars differed regarding the two Names Malik and Maalik. Some of them said the name Malik is more intensive and general, because every king can own something, but not every owner can be a king, and because the command of the king is executed upon the owner. Others said Maalik is more general and intensive than Malik when praising Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) because He is the Owner of mankind and the whole dominion. The truth is that every Attribute has a specialty that is not found in the other one.” [Fath Al-Qadeer (1/22)]
The impact of believing in these Names:
1. To Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) Alone belongs the true kingship and none other, and anyone who owns or possesses anything, it is from Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala). The One who deserves the name King, is Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) Alone. He is the Possessor of the kingdom. He gives the kingdom to whom He wills, and He takes the kingdom from whom He wills. He endures with honour whom He wills, and He humiliates whom He wills. In His Hand is the good. Verily, He is able to do all things. Some people transgress and think that they are the real owners and kings, forgetting that they are just successors and trustees of what Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) has granted them of kingship, wealth and authority. Accordingly, they become arrogant and oppress people without a just cause. As Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) mentioned about Pharaoh in Surat Az-Zukhruf (43:51) when he (Pharaoh) called himself a god and claimed that the whole dominion belonged to him:
وَنَادَى فِرْعَوْنُ فِى قَوْمِهِ قَالَ يَاقَوْمِ أَلَيْسَ لِى مُلْكُ مِصْرَ وَهَذِهِ الأَنْهارُ تَجْرِى مِن تَحتِى أَفَلَا تُبْصِرُونَ
“And Pharaoh proclaimed among his people, saying: ‘O my people! Is not mine the dominion of Egypt, and these rivers flowing underneath me. See you not then?’”
And in Surat An-Naz’at (79:23-24) Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) said:
فَحَشَرَ فَنَادَى. فَقَالَ أَنا رَبُّكُمُ الْأَعْلَى
“Then he gathered his people and cried aloud, saying: ‘I am your lord, most high.’”
Pharaoh called his people to misguidance and they obeyed him. Accordingly, Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) punished them all:
فَاسْتَخَفَ قَوْمَهُ فَأَطَاعُوهُ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا قَوْماً فَاسِقِين. فَلَمَّا ءَاسَفُونَا انتَقَمْنَا مِنْهُم فَأَغْرَقْنَاهُمْ أَجْمَعِينِ
فَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ سَلَفاً وَمَثَلَاً لِلْأخِرِينَ.
“Thus, he (Pharaoh) befooled and misled his people, and they obeyed him. Verily, they were a people who were “Fasiqun” (rebellious, disobedient to Allah). So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all. And We made them a precedent (as a lesson for those coming after them), and an example to later generations.” (Az-Zukhruf 43:54-56)
Pharaoh thought that he would live forever. He forgot that his kingship is temporary and will vanish and that death will come to him for sure.
2. Allah, the King, is the owner of the treasures of the heavens and the earth, and bestows the good upon whomever He wills, in Whose Hands are life, death, and the resurrection, the benefit and the harm. To Him return all affairs (for decision). He disposes the affairs of His kingdom as He wills.
كُلَّ يَوْمٍ هُوَ فِى شَأْنٍ
“Every day He has a matter to bring forth (such as giving honour to some, disgrace to some, life to some, death to some, etc.)!” (Ar-Rahman 55:29)
If Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) is the Only True King, then He is the only One Who deserves to be obeyed and none other, because all others besides Him (of kings) are just slaves to Him, and they are under His Command. Therefore, His obedience is prior to and above the obedience of others.
3. One should know that it is not permissible for a man to be called the king of kings. Narrated Abu Hurairah (Radia Allaahu ‘anhu) that Allah’s Messenger (Salla Allaahu alaihi wa sallam) said: “The most awful name to Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) on the Day of Resurrection, will be (that of) a man calling himself Malik Al-Amlak ( the king of kings or Shahin Shah).”[Al-Bukhari]. Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) is Alone the King of kings and none other.
4. Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) is Maaliki Yawmid-Deen,“The Only Owner (and the Only Ruling Judge) of the Day of Recompense (i.e. the Day of Resurrection).” [Al-Fatihah 1:4] Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) also said in Surat Al-Furqan (25:26):
الُمُلْكُ يَوْمَئِذٍ الحَقُّ لِلرَّحْمن
“The Sovereignty on that Day will be the true (sovereignty), belonging to the Most Beneficent (Allah).”
Although Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) is the Owner of all days, not only the Day of Resurrection, the Day of Recompense is mentioned, because the kingship on that Great Day is His only. None of the tyrants or kings of the earth will dispute or share with Him. On that Day, the true and complete kingship, wisdom and justice will appear to the whole creation, and the kings of the earth will be equalized with the slaves and other people. All of them will submit themselves to His Majesty waiting for the recompense, fearing His punishment and hoping for His Pardon, Forgiveness and Reward.
(Radia-Allaahu ‘anhu): I heard Allah’s Messenger’s (Salla Allaahu alaihi wa sallam) saying, “Allah will grasp the whole planet of earth (by His Hand), and roll all the heavens up with His right Hand, and then He will say, “I am the King, where are the kings of the earth?” [Al-Bukhari]
In another version by Muslim, narrated ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar (Radia Allaahu ‘anhu) that Allah’s Messenger (Salla Allaahu alaihi wa sallam) said: “Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) will roll the heavens up on the Day of Resurrection and take them with His Right Hand, then He will say, ‘I am the King, where are the tyrants? Where are the arrogant?’ Then He will roll up the earth with His left Hand and say, ‘I am the King, where are the tyrants? Where are the arrogant?’”
Can any one of these tyrants of the earth answer Him? No. All will be silent and all voices will be humbled as He (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) said in Surat Ta-Ha (20:108):
وَ خَشَعَت الأَصْواتُ لِلرَّحْمن فَلا تَسْمَع إِلاَّ هَمْساً
“And all voices will be humbled for the Most Beneficent (Allah), and nothing shall you hear but the low voice of their foot steps.”
5. Out of His Mercy to His creation is the fact that Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) is the Only King on the Day of Judgement, Who will recompense with justice and never oppress or be unjust to anybody. As Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) aid in Surat Fussilat (41:46):
وَما رَبُّكَ بِظَلاَّمٍ لِلعَبِيد
“And your Lord is not at all unjust to (His) slaves.”
Also Allah (Subhanaahu wa Ta’ala) said in Surat Al-Anbiya’ (21:47):
وَنَضَعُ الْمَوَازِينَ الْقِسْطَ لِيَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ فَلَا تُظْلَمُ نَفْسٌ شَيْئاً
“And We shall set up balances of justice, on the Day of Resurrection; then none will be dealt with unjustly in anything.”
- Ar-Rahman Ar-Rahim
- Al-Mu’min (The Giver of Security)
- Al-Qaadir, Al-Qadeer, Al-Muqtadir (The Able)
- Al-Qahir (The Irresistible) , Al-Qahhaar (The Subduer)