3 – دار المقامة (Dar Al-Muqamah)

In Surat Faatir [35:34-35], Allaah (Ta’ala) says:

وَقَالُوا الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي أَذْهَبَ عَنَّا الْحَزَنَ ۖ إِنَّ رَبَّنَا لَغَفُورٌ شَكُورٌ

“And they will say: ‘All the praises and thanks be to Allaah, Who has removed from us (all) grief. Verily, our Lord is indeed Oft-Forgiving, Most Ready to appreciate (good deeds and to recompense).’

الَّذِي أَحَلَّنَا دَارَ الْمُقَامَةِ مِن فَضْلِهِ لَا يَمَسُّنَا فِيهَا نَصَبٌ وَلَا يَمَسُّنَا فِيهَا لُغُوبٌ

‘Who, out of His Grace, has lodged us in a home that will last forever; there, toil will touch us not, nor will weariness touch us.’”

What is the meaning of the verse and the meaning of “Dar Al-Muqamah”? We have to go back to verses 29-30 to know who the context is about:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَتْلُونَ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَأَنفَقُوا مِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ سِرًّا وَعَلَانِيَةً يَرْجُونَ تِجَارَةً لَّن تَبُورَ

“Verily, those who recite the Book of Allaah (this Qur’an), and perform As-Salaat (Iqamat-as-Salaat), and spend (in charity) out of what We have provided for them, secretly and openly, hope for a (sure) trade-gain that will never perish.”

Shaikh As-Sa’dee (Rahimahullaah) said: “They recite the Qur’an, follow its commands, abstain from its prohibitions, believe in its news, and they do not precede the statement of anyone over the statement of Allaah. They understand the meaning, ponder over it, and act upon it. Then Allaah (Ta’ala) specified the prayer from At-Tilawah after the general statement, which is the pillar of the religion, the light of the Muslims, the scale of faith, and the sign of the truthfulness of one’s Islam. And He (Ta’ala) mentioned the spending particularly which includes spending on their relatives, the poor, the orphan, and others from Zakaat, expiation, vows, charity, secretly and openly (i.e. in all times.)” [Tayseer Al-Kareem]

How would Allaah (Ta’ala) deal with them?

لِيُوَفِّيَهُمْ أُجُورَهُمْ وَيَزِيدَهُم مِّن فَضْلِهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ غَفُورٌ شَكُورٌ

“That He may pay them their wages in full, and give them (even) more, out of His Grace. Verily! He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Ready to appreciate (good deeds and to recompense).”

Meaning, if Allaah will deal with them by His Name Al-Ghafoor, He will forgive shortcomings and defects in their acts of worship and perfect it for them and give them the full wage for it. And if He deals with them by His Name Ash-Shakoor, He will accept their good deeds and multiply the reward for them.

The state of the believers in the Dunya:

a) They recite the Book of Allaah and follow its commands

b) They establish the Salaat

c) They spend of what Allaah has given them

These deeds are the capital with which they are trading with Allaah. Allaah, Al-Kareem; the Most Generous, will not make their deed go in vain, nor will He make them losers with Him. When one trades with Allaah, he will surely gain a profit.

Then, in verse 34:

وَقَالُوا الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي أَذْهَبَ عَنَّا الْحَزَنَ ۖ إِنَّ رَبَّنَا لَغَفُورٌ شَكُورٌ

“And they will say: ‘All the praises and thanks be to Allaah, Who has removed from us (all) grief. Verily, our Lord is indeed Oft-Forgiving, Most Ready to appreciate (good deeds and to recompense).’”

They say this when they enter Paradise; this is the first feeling that they feel. All praise to Allaah who removed from us all kinds of grief. This indicates that the Dunya is the abode of grief. Verily, our Lord is indeed Oft-Forgiving, Most Ready to appreciate (good deeds and to recompense).Meaning, had it not been for the fact that Allaah treated us with His Names Al-Ghafoor and Ash-Shakoor, we would not find all these bounties.

In verse 35:

الَّذِي أَحَلَّنَا دَارَ الْمُقَامَةِ مِن فَضْلِهِ لَا يَمَسُّنَا فِيهَا نَصَبٌ وَلَا يَمَسُّنَا فِيهَا لُغُوبٌ

“Who, out of His Grace, has lodged us in a home that will last forever; there, toil will touch us not, nor will weariness touch us.”

Shaikh As-Sa’dee (Rahimahullaah) said: “Dar al-Muqamah is the Home of permanent residency. It is the abode in which one desires to stay forever because of its abundant good and successive pleasures and removal of disturbances and harms.”

Out of His Grace means, it is by Allaah’s grace upon us, not by our deeds. Had it not been for His Grace, we would not have reached what we did.

Neither fatigue touches us therein, nor weariness of mind because there is no tiredness in the body or heart. This indicates that there is no sleep in Paradise, because the benefit of sleep is to remove tiredness and attain rest and because sleep is minor death and there is no death in Jannah.

4 – جنة المأوى (Jannat Al-Ma’wa)

Allaah (Ta’ala) says in Surat An-Najm [53:14-15]:

عِندَ سِدْرَةِ الْمُنتَهَىٰ

“Near Sidrat-ul-Muntaha [lote-tree of the utmost boundary (beyond which none can pass)],”

عِندَهَا جَنَّةُ الْمَأْوَىٰ

“Near it is the Paradise of Abode.”

The Prophet (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) saw Jibreel in the shape that Allaah created him on the eve of al-Mi’raj (to the heavens) at Sidrat-ul-Muntaha.

Shaikh As-Sa’dee (Rahimahullaah) said in Tayseer Al-Kareem: “It is a very great tree above the seven heavens. It is called Sidrat al-Muntaha because what ascends from the earth ends there, and what descends from Allaah of revelation and other than it descends from there. Or, the knowledge of the creation ends at it (beyond it the creation has no knowledge about); because it is the highest thing, or for other reasons. And Allaah knows best.

The Prophet (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) saw Jibreel in that place, which is the place of the most pure, beautiful souls, which no Shaytaan comes near to, nor do others from the wicked souls.

At that tree is ‘Jannatul Ma’wa’ i.e., the Jannah which consists of every delight, where all wishes, wills, intentions and desires end, and all desires take refuge in. This is evidence that Jannah is in the highest places and above the seven heavens.” [Tayseer Al-Kareem]

So it is the Jannah where the souls of believers reach and reside, and the Jannah the believers yearn for with love and hope, and it is their utmost wish to reach and reside therein.

5 – جنة الفردوس (Jannat Al-Firdaus)

In Surat Al-Mu’minoon [23:10-11], Allaah (Ta’ala) says:

أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْوَارِثُونَ

“These are indeed the inheritors.”

الَّذِينَ يَرِثُونَ الْفِرْدَوْسَ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

“Who shall inherit the Firdaus (Paradise). They shall dwell therein forever.”

The context is about the believing slaves of Allaah, and mentions their success and happiness and what they did to achieve that, in order to encourage us to attribute ourselves with their attributes. Let every slave weigh himself with these verses, to know how much Imaan he has, whether it has increased or decreased, or if it is weak or strong.

1) “قد افلح المؤمنون” – They believe in Allaah (Tawheed)

2) “الذين هم في صلاتهم خَاشِعُون” – They offer prayer with submissiveness and humility, having attentive hearts, understanding what they are saying and doing, etc.

3) “والذين هم عن اللغو معرضون” – They turn away from ill speech (useless, unbeneficial talk)

4) “والذين هم لزكاة فاعلون” – They are observant of Zakaat

5) “والذين هم لفروجهم حافظون” – They guard their private parts (from committing Zina) and avoid all that leads to that by guarding their eyes, ears, etc.

6) “والذين هم لأماناتهم و عهدهم راعون” – They keep their trusts and promises and are careful to discharge and execute them. The greatest trust is the trust towards Allaah. Allaah enjoined upon us many obligatory acts which are considered trusts. The believers fulfill the covenant with Allaah and keep the trusts they are entrusted with by humans as well.

7) “والذين هم على صلواتهم يحافظون” – They carefully maintain their prayer(s), offer it in its time, while fulfilling its pillars and obligatory acts.

Allaah praised the believers for two matters regarding their prayers:

a) Khushoo’ in their prayer

b) Maintaining their prayers

In the Arabic language, al-Firdaus means the garden of abundant grape-vines. It could refer to Jannah generally, or it could be a name for the highest degree of Paradise (Al-Firdaus Al-A’la).

Shaikh As-Sa’dee (Rahimahullaah) said: “Al-Firdaus is the highest part of Jannah, and in the middle of Paradise, and the best of it. This is because the believers were adorned with the highest and most noble attributes. Or the intent is the whole of Paradise, entailing the entrance of all the believers in accordance to their degree and state.

They will abide therein forever. They will neither want to change it, nor will they desire to be removed from it because it is comprised of the perfect, complete, best delight, without any harm or distress.” [Tayseer Al-Kareem]

In some quotations of the Companions, it is mentioned that al-Firdaus is a specific name for the highest place in Jannah. However, in this Surat, al-Firdaus is a word, which refers to Jannah in general. Jannah means the garden of abundant trees and good; similarly, al-Firdaus means the garden of abundant grape vines.

The Shaikh (Rahimahullaah) said regarding the verse in Surat Al-Kahf [18:107-108]:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ كَانَتْ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتُ الْفِرْدَوْسِ نُزُلًا

“Verily! Those who believe [in the Oneness of Allaah (Islamic Monotheism)] and do righteous deeds, shall have the Gardens of Al-Firdaus (the Paradise) for their entertainment.”

خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا لَا يَبْغُونَ عَنْهَا حِوَلًا

“Wherein they shall dwell (forever). No desire will they have to be removed therefrom.”

Jannaat Al-Firdaus refers to the highest part of Paradise and its middle and best, and this reward is for those who have perfected their faith and performed righteous deeds, such as the Prophets and the foremost. Or it may refer to all the degrees of Paradise, so this reward includes all the believers from among the foremost, the pious, the moderate; every person according to his state. And this meaning is most preponderant, because:

a) Of its generality

b) Jannah is mentioned in plural form when connected to Al-Firdaus

c) Al-Firdaus is a name for a garden which consists of grapes or trees which are intertwined and bent in many directions.

The Prophet (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Al-Firdaus is the highest part of Paradise, its most center, and its best.” [Saheeh At-Tirmidhi, no. 3174]

He (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) also said: “Al-Firdaus is the highest part of Paradise and its most expansive, and above it is the Throne of Ar-Rahmaan (The Most Merciful) and from it the (four) rivers of Paradise are made to flow forth. So when you ask Allaah, ask Him for Al-Firdaus.” [Saheeh At-Tirmidhi, no. 2530]

The four rivers of Paradise flow from Al-Firdaus, especially Al-Kawthar and At-Tasneem. Some Scholars said that when the people of Paradise just wish for Tasneem, their cups will be filled with it as they wish. This is a glad tiding for every believer.

The believers, for whom Jannah is described in the Qur’an, are busy thinking of the description of Paradise, and are not thinking of the Dunya. People are of different statuses, some who are busy with lowly matters and others who are busy with mighty noble matters. This depends on the strength of one’s belief.

The state of the people of Paradise is one which no one can imagine except in a general way. They are in peace, having no fear, harm or distress. They do not ever want to turn away from it.

6 – جنات عدن (Jannaat ‘Adn)

This is mentioned profusely in the Qur’an. For example, in Surat Maryam [19:58-62]:

أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ النَّبِيِّينَ مِن ذُرِّيَّةِ آدَمَ وَمِمَّنْ حَمَلْنَا مَعَ نُوحٍ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْرَائِيلَ وَمِمَّنْ هَدَيْنَا وَاجْتَبَيْنَا ۚ إِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُ الرَّحْمَٰنِ خَرُّوا سُجَّدًا وَبُكِيًّا ۩

“Those were they unto whom Allaah bestowed His Grace from among the Prophets, of the offspring of Adam, and of those whom We carried (in the ship) with Nuh (Noah), and of the offspring of Ibraheem (Abraham) and Israel and from among those whom We guided and chose. When the verses of the Most Beneficent (Allaah) were recited unto them, they fell down prostrating and weeping.”

فَخَلَفَ مِن بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ أَضَاعُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَاتَّبَعُوا الشَّهَوَاتِ ۖ فَسَوْفَ يَلْقَوْنَ غَيًّا

“Then, there has succeeded them a posterity who have given up As-Salaat (the prayers) [i.e. made their Salaat (prayers) to be lost by not offering them, or by not offering them perfectly, or by not offering them in their proper fixed times, etc.] and have followed lusts. So they will be thrown in Hell.”

إِلَّا مَن تَابَ وَآمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَأُولَٰئِكَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ شَيْئًا

“Except those who repent and believe (in the Oneness of Allaah and His Messenger Muhammad, and the rest of articles of faith), and work righteousness (according to the Qur’an and Sunnah). Such will enter Paradise and they will not be wronged in aught.”

جَنَّاتِ عَدْنٍ الَّتِي وَعَدَ الرَّحْمَٰنُ عِبَادَهُ بِالْغَيْبِ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ وَعْدُهُ مَأْتِيًّا

“(They will enter) ‘Adn (Eden) Paradise (everlasting Gardens), which the Most Beneficent (Allaah) has promised to His slaves in the unseen: Verily! His Promise must come to pass.”

لَّا يَسْمَعُونَ فِيهَا لَغْوًا إِلَّا سَلَامًا ۖ وَلَهُمْ رِزْقُهُمْ فِيهَا بُكْرَةً وَعَشِيًّا

“They shall not hear therein (in Paradise) any Laghw (dirty, false, evil vain talk), but only Salaam (salutations of peace). And they will have therein their sustenance, morning and afternoon.”

Shaikh As-Sa’dee (Rahimahullaah) said: “Jannaat ‘Adn are Gardens of settlement (residence); there is no turning from it, nor removal from it, nor leaving it, and that is because of its vastness, and abundant good, joy, and happiness.”

‘Adn in Arabic means (eternal)

I.e. عدنت بأرض (I settled in a land)

Jannaat ‘Adn means everlasting Paradise.

The believers will abide therein forever and never leave it, and their joy will never come to an end, and they will have nothing to disturb their joy. They will never feel bored, although it is human nature to feel bored after settling in one place for a long time. Jannaat ‘Adn means their dwellers do not want to leave it, nor are they bored.

Jannaat ‘Adn also means that the gardens do not remain in one state such that it causes boredom to man, rather its delight is renewed. The delights today are different from the delights of yesterday; it increases in beauty and delight. This is contrary to the Dunya where if one remains in any place for long, its beauty perishes and its delight fades away. All these meanings are entailed by the word ‘Adn. Therefore, it is the most mentioned name for Paradise in the Qur’an.

 

Sources:

📚 Tayseer Al-Kareem by Shaikh As-Sa’dee (Rahimahullaah)

📚 Tafseer Ibn Katheer

📚 Explanation of Shaikha Anaaheed of the Book of Ar-Riqaaq

 

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