Source: Lessons from the Khutbah of the Prophet (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) at ‘Arafaat by Dr. ‘Abdullaah Shaakir al-Junaidi
From among the blessed days of Allaah is the honored day of ‘Arafaat. This day is joined with a blessed place and time. It was at ‘Arafaat that the Prophet (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) gave a great eloquent Khutbah (sermon) at a gathering of his Companions; there has never been a gathering similar to it.
In this sermon, he (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) extolled Allaah’s Rites and Sacred Ordinances and clarified various rights and duties; he (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) kept everything pertaining to the time of Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic times of ignorance) under his feet, i.e. (abolished); he advised man to be kind and treat women well. May Allaah’s peace and blessings be upon him.
Muslim reported on the authority of Jabir ibn ‘Abdullaah (Radia-Allaahu ‘anhu) that Prophet Muhammad (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) addressed the people on the day of ‘Arafah at Namirah saying:
“Verily, your blood and your property are as inviolable (sacred) as the inviolability of this day of yours, in this month of yours, in this town of yours. Behold! Everything pertaining to Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic days of ignorance) is under my feet, completely abolished. Abolished also is the blood retaliation of the days of ignorance. The first claim of ours which I abolish is that of the blood retaliation of the son of Rabi’ah ibn al-Haarith, who was nursed among the tribe of Sa’d and killed by the Hudhail. And the usury of the pre-Islamic period is abolished, and the first of our usury I abolish is that of ‘Abbaas ibn ‘Abdul-Muttalib, for it is all abolished. Fear Allaah concerning women! Verily, you have taken them on the security of Allaah, and intercourse with them has been made lawful for you by the Words of Allaah. You too have rights over them, and they should not allow anyone to sit on your mats whom you do not like. If they do that, beat them, but not severely. Their right upon you is that you provide them with food and clothing in a fitting manner. I have left you with the Book of Allaah and if you adhere to it, you will never go astray. And you will be questioned about me (on the Day of Resurrection). What will you say?” They said: “We will testify that you have conveyed the message, discharged the duty of Prophethood, and have given sincere counsel.” The narrator said that the Prophet (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) then raised his forefinger towards the sky and then pointed it at the people saying: “O Allaah, be Witness,” saying it thrice.
Bilaal (Radia-Allaahu ‘anhu) then pronounced the Adhaan and later on the Iqaamah, and the Prophet (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) led the afternoon prayer and observed no other prayer between the two. [Muslim –the Book of Hajj]
This sermon contained noble details, and pointed to great legal foundations which Muslims should give importance to. One should understand their meanings, especially in this present time when much of the Sunnah acts have become hidden, and desires and innovations have become widespread.
Some of the main points that this great sermon included:
First: The sacredness (inviolability) of blood, wealth and honor
This is clear in his (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) saying: “Verily your blood and your property are as sacred and inviolable as the sacredness of this day of yours.” [Saheeh Muslim]
The Prophet (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) commenced (his sermon) by forbidding bloodshed because of the danger of immersion into it, whereby it would lead to the existence of someone who would dare to (practice) it. The Prophet (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) connected the sacredness of the blood with the greatness of the time and place. (He) forbade it in Makkah, on the day of ‘Arafah and (during) the month of Dhul-Hijjah. In that way, the greatness of the sacredness of the blood would have a profound effect on the hearts. This is clear in his (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) words: “As the sanctity of this day of yours, in this month of yours and in this town of yours.”
An-Nawawi (Rahimahullaah) said when explaining this statement: “It means that bloodshed is strictly forbidden. In this statement, there is evidence to set forth examples with their likenesses.” [The explanation of an-Nawawi for Muslim 7/182]
The Prophet (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) repeated that again in his words: “The blood retaliation (practiced) in the days of ignorance are abolished, and the first of them that I abolish is the blood retaliation for him who was nursed among Banu Laith and killed by the Hudhail.” Many verses in the Holy Qur’an are mentioned, in which Allaah (Ta’ala) forbids taking lives that He has forbidden except with what is permissible. From that there are His Words in Surat al-Ma’idah (5:32):
مِنۡ أَجۡلِ ذَٲلِكَ ڪَتَبۡنَا عَلَىٰ بَنِىٓ إِسۡرَٲٓءِيلَ أَنَّهُ ۥ مَن قَتَلَ نَفۡسَۢا بِغَيۡرِ نَفۡسٍ أَوۡ فَسَادٍ۬ فِى ٱلۡأَرۡضِ فَڪَأَنَّمَا قَتَلَ ٱلنَّاسَ جميعا
“Because of that We ordained for the Children of Israel that if anyone killed a person not in retaliation of murder, or to spread mischief in the land – it would be as if he killed all mankind.”
The meaning of the verse: (This is) because of the crime and killing, which fell wrongly and unlawfully upon one of the two sons of Adam, Allaah ordained that for the Children of Israel. Thus, it is to emphasize the gravity of killing and it warns against falling into that (sin). What was prescribed upon the Children of Israel also includes this (Muslim) community. It was said to al-Hasan al-Basri: “Is it for us, Abu Sa’id, as it was for the Children of Israel?” He said: “Yes, by the One except Whom there is no god, as it was for the Children of Israel. And the blood of the Children of Israel is not more honorable with Allaah than our blood!” [Tafseer at-Tabari, 6/131]
It is mentioned by Ibn Katheer, that Abu Hurairah (Radia-Allaahu ‘anhu) said: “I entered upon ‘Uthmaan on the Day of ad-Dar. I said: ‘I have come to give you support. Fighting has become pleasing, O Ameer al-Mu’mineen (the leader of the believers)!’ He (Radia-Allaahu ‘anhu) said: ‘O Abu Hurairah! Would you like to kill all people including me?’ I said: ‘No.’ He said: ‘So then if you kill one person, it is as if you have killed all mankind. So leave! You have been given the permission (from me), being rewarded and not sinful.’ He (Abu Hurairah) said: ‘I left and I did not fight.’” Shaikh Ahmad Shaakir (Rahimahullaah) said commenting on this quotation: “Al-Haafidh Ibn Katheer conveyed this news without clarifying its source. Ibn Sa’d narrated it in at-Tabaqaat. Its chain of narration is very authentic.” [‘Umdat at-Tafseer, 4/130]
Allaah (Ta’ala) says when describing the slaves of Ar-Rahmaan (the Most Gracious) in Surat al-Furqaan (25:68-69):
وَٱلَّذِينَ لَا يَدۡعُونَ مَعَ ٱللَّهِ إِلَـٰهًا ءَاخَرَ وَلَا يَقۡتُلُونَ ٱلنَّفۡسَ ٱلَّتِى حَرَّمَ ٱللَّهُ إِلَّا بِٱلۡحَقِّ وَلَا يَزۡنُونَۚ وَمَن يَفۡعَلۡ ذَٲلِكَ يَلۡقَ أَثَامً۬ا (٦٨)يُضَـٰعَفۡ لَهُ ٱلۡعَذَابُ يَوۡمَ ٱلۡقِيَـٰمَةِ وَيَخۡلُدۡ فِيهِۦ مُهَانًا
“And those who invoke not any other ilaah (god) along with Allaah, nor kill such life as Allaah has forbidden, except for just cause, nor commit illegal sexual intercourse – and whoever does this shall receive the punishment.
The torment will be doubled to him on the Day of Resurrection, and he will abide therein in disgrace.”
Allaah (Ta’ala) has intensified the threat with regards to deliberately killing a believer, as He Ta’ala says in Surat an-Nisaa’ (4:93):
وَمَن يَقۡتُلۡ مُؤۡمِنً۬ا مُّتَعَمِّدً۬ا فَجَزَآؤُهُ ۥ جَهَنَّمُ خَـٰلِدً۬ا فِيہَا وَغَضِبَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡهِ وَلَعَنَهُ ۥ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُ ۥ عَذَابًا عَظِيمً۬ا
“And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell to abide therein, and the Wrath and the Curse of Allaah are upon him, and a great punishment is prepared for him.”
This is a severe and assured threat for the one who commits this great sin. In other verses of the Holy Qur’an, Allaah has joined (this sin) to polytheism.
Because of the severe threat that is mentioned in this verse, the scholars have differed regarding the deliberate killing of a believer; (i.e.) is there any repentance for him or not? The strongest (opinion) is that his repentance will be accepted, by the Will of Allaah.
Ash-Shawkaani (Rahimahullaah) said: “The scholars have differed in regards to whether or not there is any repentance for the one who kills deliberately.
Al-Bukhaari reported on the authority of Sa’id ibn Jubair as he said “The scholars of Kufa have differed regarding it, so I travelled to Ibn ‘Abbaas (Radia-Allaahu ‘anhuma) and asked him about it. He said: ‘This verse
وَمَن يَقۡتُلۡ مُؤۡمِنً۬ا مُّتَعَمِّدً۬ا فَجَزَآؤُهُ ۥ جَهَنَّمُ خَـٰلِدً۬ا فِيہَا وَغَضِبَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيۡهِ وَلَعَنَهُ ۥ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُ ۥ عَذَابًا عَظِيمً۬ا
“And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell to abide therein, and the Wrath and the Curse of Allaah are upon him, and a great punishment is prepared for him” [Surat an-Nisaa’ (4:93)],
was the last of what was sent down and nothing abrogated it.’”
The majority of scholars are in consensus (agreed) that the repentance from him is accepted. Their evidence for this is Allaah’s Statement:
إِنَّ ٱلۡحَسَنَـٰتِ يُذۡهِبۡنَ ٱلسَّيِّـَٔاتِۚ
“Verily, the good deeds remove the evil deeds (i.e. small sins).” [Surat Hud (11:114)]
And His (Ta’ala) saying in Surat ash-Shura (42:25):
وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى يَقۡبَلُ ٱلتَّوۡبَةَ عَنۡ عِبَادِه ويعفوا عن السيئات ويعلم ما تفعلونِ
“And He it is Who accepts repentance from His slaves, and forgives sins, and He Knows what you do.”
And His (Ta’ala) Statement in Surat an-Nisaa’ (4:48):
وَيَغۡفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَن يَشَآءُ
“He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He pleases.”
They also said it is possible to join the verses of Surat an-Nisaa’ (4:93) and Surat al-Furqaan (25:68-69), such that their meaning will be as follows: his recompense will be Hell, except for he who repents. The truth is that the gate of repentance is not closed upon every sinner; rather, it remains open for everyone who seeks it and strives to enter it. Polytheism, which is the greatest of sins and the most grievous, is wiped out by repentance to Allaah. Abandoning it (polytheism) and entering the gate of repentance is accepted from the person. How is it then with other sins which are less than it (in gravity)?” [Fatah al-Qadeer, 1/499]
The scholars of the Sunnah are in consensus that every sin other than ascribing partners with Allaah, Allaah forgives whoever He wills from His slaves even without repentance.
Allaah (Ta’ala) says in Surat an-Nisaa’ (4:48):
إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَغۡفِرُ أَن يُشۡرَكَ بِهِۦ وَيَغۡفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَلِكَ لِمَن يَشَآءُۚ
“Verily, Allaah forgives not that partners should be set up with him in worship, but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He pleases.”
The Prophet (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) emphasized the issue of bloodshed in many other Ahadeeth, such as his (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) saying: “The first cases to be decided among the people (on the Day of Resurrection) will be those of bloodshed.” [Al-Bukhaari, 6864]
And the Hadeeth of Abu Hurairah (Radia-Allaahu ‘anhu): “Avoid the seven destructive things.” Among them was: “To kill the life which Allaah has forbidden, except for a just cause.” [Al-Bukhaari, 2766]
Also, Ibn ‘Umar (Radia-Allaahu ‘anhuma) narrated that the Prophet (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “A faithful believer remains at liberty regarding his religion unless he kills somebody unlawfully.” [Al-Bukhaari, 6862]
‘Abdullaah ibn Mas’ood (Radia-Allaahu ‘anhu) narrated that the Prophet (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “The blood of a Muslim who confesses that none has the right to be worshipped but Allaah and that I am the Messenger of Allaah, cannot be shed except in three cases: (1) a life for a life, (in cases of intentional murders without right, i.e. in Qisas – Law of Equality in punishment), (2) a married person who commits illegal sexual intercourse, (3) the one who turns renegade from Islam (apostate) and leaves the group of Muslims.” [Al-Bukhaari, 6878]
Some examples included in the forbiddance of attacking the people are: killing, defamation, abuse, insult, and taking revenge.
If Muslims were to ponder upon that, nobody would transgress against another person, nor would blood be shed. How can someone harm another person after these warnings?
Second: The forbiddance of eating the wealth of others
In his sermon, the Prophet (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) mentioned the forbiddance of usurping wealth directly after bloodshed. That is because wealth is a means to prosperity and a noble life in the shade of faith. Allaah has forbidden us from eating each other’s wealth, whether by looting, stealing, usurping or fraud (cheating).
Allaah (Ta’ala) says in Surat al-Baqarah (2:188):
وَلَا تَأۡكُلُوٓاْ أَمۡوَٲلَكُم بَيۡنَكُم بِٱلۡبَـٰطِلِ وَتُدۡلُواْ بِهَآ إِلَى ٱلۡحُڪَّامِ لِتَأۡڪُلُواْ فَرِيقً۬ا مِّنۡ أَمۡوَٲلِ ٱلنَّاسِ بِٱلۡإِثۡمِ وَأَنتُمۡ تَعۡلَمُونَ
“And eat up not one another’s property unjustly (in any illegal way, e.g. stealing, robbing, deceiving, etc.), nor give bribery to the rulers (judges before presenting your cases) that you may knowingly eat up a part of the property of others sinfully.”
The effects of wrongfully eating up the wealth of people is that it will create enmity and plant hatred in the hearts. Consequently, chaos and disorganization will spread. People’s lives will become corrupt and unbalanced. It is upon a Muslim to know that unlawful wealth cannot be benefitted from. And if it does happen that one benefits from it, his benefit will be blemished with catastrophes and problems. What the one who committed it will reap when he meets his Lord will be even greater and more severe. So take heed, the utmost heed, O people of faith.
As for his (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) warning and forbidding the transgression against the honor (of the people), sufficient is what he (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said in his sermon.
Third: The abolition of all the aspects of Jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic period)
This is clear in his saying (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) during his sermon: “Lo! Everything pertaining to the pre-Islamic period has been put under my feet.” [Saheeh Muslim, 1218] In this there is a great rejection and contempt of all aspects of Jahiliyyah. At the top of those aspects that Jahiliyyah was upon was ascribing partners to Allaah in worship. That is the greatest of all sins. Allaah will never forgive ascribing partners to Him. In His noble Book, Allaah (Ta’ala) says:
إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَغۡفِرُ أَن يُشۡرَكَ بِهِۦ وَيَغۡفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٲلِكَ لِمَن يَشَآءُۚ
“Verily, Allaah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him in worship, but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He pleases.” [Surat an-Nisaa’ 4:48]
In his sermon, the Prophet (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) pointed to some aspects of Jahiliyyah being abolished. Among them was the blood (retaliation) of Jahiliyyah. From those was the blood of Ibn Rabi’ah ibn al-Haarith who was killed by the Hudhail while he was in the care of his nursemaid in Bani Sa’d. The issue of interest (usury) in Jahiliyyah also was mentioned. The first interest that was abolished was the interest of ‘Abbaas ibn ‘Abdul-Muttalib. Taking interest (dealing with usury) is forbidden by the Book, the Sunnah and in consensus (of the scholars). It is one of the major sins. Allaah (Ta’ala) says in Surat Aal-‘Imraan (3:130):
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا تَأۡڪُلُواْ ٱلرِّبَوٰٓاْ أَضۡعَـٰفً۬ا مُّضَـٰعَفَةً۬ۖ
“O you who believe! Eat not Riba (usury) doubled and multiplied.”
Ibn Jarir (Rahimahullaah) said regarding the meaning of the verse: “Do not eat Riba (interest) as you used to eat it in Jahiliyyah, after you have been guided to Islam. A man among them used to have a debt owed to him by another man. If the conditions had been fulfilled by his companion (i.e. if the time of giving back the loan was due), the one who had the debt (i.e. the debtor) would say: ‘Delay my debt upon you and I will add to the money that I owe you.’ They did that so that is usury doubled and multiplied.” [Tafseer at-Tabari, 4/59]
The restriction in His (Ta’ala) Words,
“Doubled and multiplied” [Surat Aal-‘Imraan 3:130]
does not mean forbidding the eating of interest in cases of multiplication particularly and permitting it in other (situations). Rather, usury (interest) is forbidden in small or large (amounts). Allaah (Ta’ala) says in Surat al-Baqarah (2:275):
وَأَحَلَّ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡبَيۡعَ وَحَرَّمَ ٱلرِّبَوٰاْۚ
“Whereas Allaah has permitted trading and forbidden Riba (usury)”
Al-Jassas said: “It is known that the usury of Jahiliyyah was a delayed loan with a conditional increment. The increment was in return for the delay in repayment, so Allaah (Ta’ala) abolished it and forbade it.” [Ahkaam al-Qur’an, part 1/467]
Fourth: The conformity of the actions of the Prophet (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) with his sayings
In this part of his (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) sermon, there is a great benefit. The Prophet (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was at the forefront of those who established the Command of Allaah. His actions conformed to his statements; he (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was always fair and just. This fairness and justice is understood from his statement: “The first blood that is abolished from our blood is the blood of Ibn Rabi’ah” and “the first of our usury I abolish is that of ‘Abbaas ibn ‘Abdul-Muttalib.”
The Islamic world should understand this advice and work towards applying it with honesty and sincerity for the sake of the Creator of the heavens and the earth. Allaah (Ta’ala) says in Surat as-Saff (61:2-3):
يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لِمَ تَقُولُونَ مَا لَا تَفۡعَلُونَ
ڪَبُرَ مَقۡتًا عِندَ ٱللَّهِ أَن تَقُولُواْ مَا لَا تَفۡعَلُونَ
“O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do?
Most hateful it is with Allaah that you say that which you do not do”
An-Nawawi mentioned in his explanation of the Hadeeth: “The Imaam and other than him from among those who enjoin the good and forbid evil should start with themselves and their families. In that way they are more likely to be accepted.” [The explanation of an-Nawawi for Muslim, 8/183]
Fifth: The advice to treat women well
From the justice and mercy of Islam comes the establishment of the family as a strong solid structure. Everyone’s rights and duties are guarded. Islam holds the woman in high regard, elevates her status, forbids that she should be treated as a commodity to be inherited, and orders that she should be treated with what is good and right, as Allaah (Ta’ala) says in Surat an-Nisaa’ (4:19):
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لَا يَحِلُّ لَكُمۡ أَن تَرِثُواْ ٱلنِّسَآءَ كَرۡهً۬اۖ وَلَا تَعۡضُلُوهُنَّ لِتَذۡهَبُواْ بِبَعۡضِ مَآ ءَاتَيۡتُمُوهُنَّ إِلَّآ أَن يَأۡتِينَ بِفَـٰحِشَةٍ۬ مُّبَيِّنَةٍ۬ۚ وَعَاشِرُوهُنَّ بِٱلۡمَعۡروف
“O you who believe! You are forbidden to inherit women against their will, and you should not treat them with harshness, that you may take away part of the Mahr you have given them, unless they commit open illegal sexual intercourse. And live with them honorably”
Islam has protected (maintained) the financial rights of women. Allaah (Ta’ala) says in Surat an-Nisaa’ (4:4):
وَءَاتُواْ ٱلنِّسَآءَ صَدُقَـٰتِہِنَّ نِحۡلَةً۬ۚ
“And give to the women (whom you marry) their Mahr (obligatory bridal money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage) with a good heart”
Islam has nullified what the people of Jahiliyyah were upon by forbidding their inheritance. The Prophet (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam)’s mention of them in this statement proves their status and it is sufficient that he (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) advised that they should be treated well. He (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Fear Allaah concerning women! Verily, you have taken them on the security of Allaah, and intercourse with them has been made lawful for you by the Words of Allaah.” [Saheeh Muslim, 1218]
Sixth: The advice to (follow) the Book of Allaah and hold fast with it
The Prophet (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “I have left you with the Book of Allaah, and if you adhere to it, you will never go astray.” [Saheeh Muslim] The advice to follow the Book and the call to hold fast with it is a call to hold fast to the Sunnah of the Prophet (Salla-Allaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam).
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