A person who frequently makes oaths by Allaah indicates his not having enough reverence for Allaah in his heart. Swearing by Allaah necessitates that one have respect for oaths by Allaah; while having high reverence for Allaah (Ta’ala) is from the perfection of Tawheed.
Allaah (Ta’ala) says in Surat al-Ma’idah (5:89) (interpretation of the meaning):
“And protect your oaths.”
Guarding the oath has three meanings and aspects:
First: One should not frequently take oaths that are binding and intentional:
Frequently taking oaths could indicate some kind of discourtesy and non-glorification of Allaah, which contradicts the perfection of Tawheed.
As for what is freely said and unintentional during discussion, such as “No! By Allaah” and “Yes! By Allaah!” there is no blame on that based on Allaah’s Statement in Surat al-Ma’idah (5:89) (interpretation of the meaning):
“Allaah will not punish you for what is unintentional in your oaths.”
Second: One should not break the oaths; however, if one takes an oath and then finds something more appropriate, he can break his oath, atone for it and do the more appropriate thing. An example: A man swears saying: “By Allaah, I will never speak to so-and-so!” and that individual is a Muslim from whom we must not break ties; then it is mandatory to break his oath, speak to him and make atonement.
Third: One should protect it by making atonement after breaking the oath.
Fourth: One should not swear by other than Allaah (Ta’ala).